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Section 28.1 Iterating with Indexes

We have seen that it is easy to loop through every item in a list using the for value in list: syntax. However, there are limitations to that approach. What if we want to iterate through only part of the list? What if we want to iterate through the list in reverse order? What if we want to change items in the list? The for value in list: can’t do any of these.
Perhaps most surprising is that the for value in list: can’t change values in a list. This is because when value is naming a value in the list, making a change just changes what value is naming - it does not change the list itself. Watch this codelens program that attempts to set each item in a list to 0 to see how it does not work:
value takes on the value of each item in list, but it is essentially working with a copy of the data. Changing value does nothing to the actual list!
To make this work, or to change the order we iterate through the list. We could try to do that with something like:
index[0] = 0 <- first item
index[1] = 0 <- second item
index[2] = 0 <- third item
But we don’t want to type out each line separately and we want to make sure we do not use too many or too few indexes. We want to use a counting loop that will automatically generate all the needed indexes. This can be created by using the range function and asking it to generate range( len(list) ). That syntax says: “Get the length of the list. Then generate the range of numbers from 0 to one less than the length.” Which is exactly what we need. For the example above, range( len(list) ) would generate 0, 1, 2, which are the indexes of the three values.
Here is the final version of the more complex loop.
Notice that the variable from the for loop, index, is holding the index of the current item. To work with the “current item”, we need to index into the list using that index: list[index] will give us the current value.
A common programmer convention is to use the variable name i to stand for “index”. Although this seems to violate the general rule of “use meaningful names”, because all programmers know that i probably means “index” when used in a loop, i does in fact have meaning.
This program uses i as the index variable. In it, we have a list of names that need to be capitalized. To do this, we loop through the indexes 0-3, access the value at that index (names[i]), call capitalize() on it, and then store it back to the same location in the list names[i] = …:

Checkpoint 28.1.1.

The following program should loop through all the items in list. Any negative values should be changed to 0. After the negative items have been replaced, we want to print the list.
Arrange and indent the blocks correctly. You will not use them all.

Checkpoint 28.1.2.

Write an indexed-based loop and use it to double each item in the list called numbers. You will need to get the existing value, multiply it by two, and store that value back into the list.
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