In this section we study logarithmic functions. For example,
\begin{equation*}
f(x)=\log_2 {x}
\end{equation*}
is a logarithmic function. In order to understand logarithmic functions better, we first investigate how they are related to more familiar functions, the exponential functions.
Subsection10.1.1Inverse of a Function
You know that raising to the \(n\)th power and taking \(n\)th roots are inverse operations. For example, if we first cube a number and then take its cube root, we return to the original number.
\begin{align*}
x \amp = \alert{5}~~~~~~\rightarrow~~~~~~x^3=125~~~~~~\rightarrow~~~~~~\sqrt[3]{x^3}=\sqrt[3]{125}=\alert{5}\\
\amp \blert{\text{Cube the number}}~~~~~~~~\blert{\text{Take the cube root}}~~~~~~~~\blert{\text{Original number}}
\end{align*}
Now consider the functions that describe those operations: The graphs of \(f(x)=x^3\) and \(g(x)=\sqrt[3]{x}\) are related in an interesting way, as shown below.
If we place a mirror along the line \(y=x\text{,}\) each graph is the reflection of the other. We say that the graphs are "symmetric about the line \(y=x\text{.}\)"
The two functions \(f(x)=x^3\) and \(g(x)=\sqrt[3]{x}\) are called inverse functions. Look at the tables of values for the two functions.
\(x\)
\(-2\)
\(-1\)
\(\dfrac{-1}{2}\)
\(0\)
\(\dfrac{1}{2}\)
\(1\)
\(2\)
\(f(x)\)
\(-8\)
\(-1\)
\(\dfrac{-1}{8}\)
\(0\)
\(\dfrac{1}{8}\)
\(1\)
\(8\)
\(x\)
\(-8\)
\(-1\)
\(\dfrac{-1}{8}\)
\(0\)
\(\dfrac{1}{8}\)
\(1\)
\(8\)
\(g(x)\)
\(-2\)
\(-1\)
\(\dfrac{-1}{2}\)
\(0\)
\(\dfrac{1}{2}\)
\(1\)
\(2\)
By interchanging the rows in the table for \(f(x)\text{,}\) we get the table for \(g(x)\text{.}\) This makes sense when we recall that each function undoes the effect of the other. In fact, we define the cube root function by
\begin{equation*}
y=\sqrt[3]{x}~~~~\text{if and only if}~~~~x=y^3
\end{equation*}
In other words, if we interchange the variables in the cubing function, \(y=x^3\text{,}\) to get \(x=y^3\text{,}\) we have an equivalent formula for the cube root function, \(y=\sqrt[3]{x}\text{.}\)
Checkpoint10.1.1.Quickcheck 1.
Simplify each expression without a calculator.
\(\sqrt[4]{17^4}=\)
\((\sqrt{213})^2=\)
\((\sqrt[5]{b})^5=\)
Answer1.
\(17\)
Answer2.
\(213\)
Answer3.
\(b\)
Solution.
\(\displaystyle 17\)
\(\displaystyle 213\)
\(\displaystyle b\)
Subsection10.1.2Inverse of an Exponential Function
A similar rule relates the operations of raising a base \(b\) to a power and taking a base \(b\) logarithm.
\begin{equation*}
y = \log_b {x}~~~~\text{if and only if}~~~~x=b^y
\end{equation*}
So the function \(g(x)=\log_b {x}\) is the inverse function for \(f(x)=b^x\text{.}\) Each function undoes the effect of the other. For example, let \(f(x)=2^x\) and \(g(x)=\log_2 {x}\text{.}\) Start with \(x=3\text{,}\) apply \(f\text{,}\) and then apply \(g\) to the result.
\begin{equation*}
x = \alert{3}~~~~~~\rightarrow~~~~~~f(3)=2^3=8~~~~~~\rightarrow~~~~~~g(8)=\log_2{8} = \alert{3}
\end{equation*}
We return to the original number, 3.
We can write these operations in one expression as
(Remember the order of operations: do what’s inside of parentheses first.) Because the log and the exponential are inverse functions, this identity holds for any value of \(x\) and any base \(b \gt 0\text{.}\) That is
What does the graph of a log function look like? We can use exponential functions to help us.
Example10.1.3.
Graph \(g(x)=\log_2{x}\)
Solution.
We can make a table of values for \(g(x)=\log_2{x}\) by interchanging the columns in a table for \(f(x)=2^x\text{.}\)
\(x\)
\(f(x)=2^x\)
\(-2\)
\(\dfrac{1}{4}\)
\(-1\)
\(\dfrac{1}{2}\)
\(0\)
\(1\)
\(1\)
\(2\)
\(2\)
\(4\)
\(3\)
\(8\)
\(x\)
\(g(x)=\log_2{x}\)
\(\dfrac{1}{4}\)
\(-2\)
\(\dfrac{1}{2}\)
\(-1\)
\(1\)
\(0\)
\(2\)
\(1\)
\(4\)
\(2\)
\(8\)
\(3\)
We plot the points for each function, connecting them with smooth curves, as shown below. You can see that the two graphs are symmetric about the line \(y=x\text{.}\)
The same technique works for graphing a log function with any base.
Checkpoint10.1.4.Practice 2.
Graph the function \(f(x)=10^x\) and its inverse function \(g(x)=\log_{10}{x}\) on the same axes.
Which of the above is the best match for the graph?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
Answer.
\(\text{(C)}\)
Solution.
A graph is also shown below.
\(f(x)=10^x\) and its inverse function \(g(x)=\log_{10}{x}\text{:}\)
Checkpoint10.1.5.QuickCheck 2.
Using a calculator, how could you estimate the value of \(\log_5 {378}\) ?
Find multiples of 5.
Find the fifth root of 378.
Find powers of 5.
Divide 378 by 5.
Answer.
\(\text{Find powers of 5.}\)
Solution.
Find powers of 5.
Did you notice that the graphs of the log functions do not have any points with negative \(x\)-coordinates? This is because an exponential function has no negative (or zero) output values, so a log function has no negative or zero input values. In other words,
We cannot take the log of a negative number or zero.
In addition, the logarithmic function has the following properties.
Properties of Log Functions.
For any base \(b \gt 0, b \ne 1\text{:}\)
The logarithmic function \(y = \log_b x\) is defined for positive \(x\) only.
The \(x\)-intercept of its graph is \((1,0)\text{.}\)
The graph has a vertical asymptote at \(x=0\text{.}\)
The graphs of \(y = \log_b x\) and \(y=b^x\) are symmetric about the line \(y=x\text{.}\)
You can also see that while an exponential growth function increases very rapidly for positive input values, its inverse, the logarithmic function, grows extremely slowly.
Checkpoint10.1.6.QuickCheck 3.
What is the \(y\)-intercept of the graph of \(y=\log_5 x\) ?
\(\displaystyle (0,1)\)
\(\displaystyle (1,0)\)
\(\displaystyle (0,5)\)
There is none.
Answer.
\(\text{Choice 4}\)
Solution.
There is none: \(\log_5 x\) not defined for \(x=0\) (nor for negative values of \(x\)).
Subsection10.1.4Using Logarithmic Functions
We can use the LOG key on a calculator to evaluate the function \(f(x) = \log_{10}{x}\text{.}\)
Example10.1.7.
Let \(f(x) = \log_{10}{x}\text{.}\) Evaluate the following expressions.
\(\displaystyle f(35)\)
\(\displaystyle f(-8)\)
\(\displaystyle 2 f(16) + 1\)
Solution.
\(\displaystyle f (35) = \log_{10}{35}\approx 1.544\)
\(f(-8)\text{,}\) or \(\log_{10}{(-8)}\text{,}\) is undefined.
The formula \(T = \dfrac{\log 2 \cdot t_i}{3 \log(D_f /D_0)}\) is used by X-ray technicians to calculate the doubling time of a malignant tumor. \(D_0\) is the diameter of the tumor when first detected, \(D_f\) is its diameter at the next reading, and \(t_i\) is the time interval between readings, in days. Calculate the doubling time of the following tumor: its diameter when first detected was 1 cm, and 7 days later its diameter was 1.05 cm.
days
Answer.
\(33.149\)
Solution.
33 days
Logarithmic functions are useful for modeling increasing functions that slow down as the input increases.
Example10.1.11.
In 1900, the average life expectancy at birth in the U.S. was 47.3 years. Since then, life expectancy has increased according to the formula
The function predicts a life expectancy of 67.7 years in 1950.
Between 1920 and 1930, life expectancy increased from 56.2 to 61.2, or 5 years. Between 1990 and 2000 it increased from 75.0 to 76.4, or 1.4 years.
Checkpoint10.1.12.Practice 5.
The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) provides Growth Charts for the average height and weight of children from age 2 to 20. The average height of girl children is given in centimeters by
Remember that we cannot take a logarithm of a negative number or zero, because the output of an exponential function is always positive.
For example suppose that \(\log_5{(-25)} = x\text{.}\) Then \(5^x = -25\text{.}\) But this is impossible, because \(5^x\) cannot be negative. Thus, the log of a negative number (or zero) is undefined.
Because of this fact, extraneous solutions can arise when we solve logarithmic equations.
If the equation contains more than one log, we must first combine any expressions involving logs into a single logarithm.
Simplifying the right side gives us a quadratic equation to solve.
\begin{align*}
x^2 - x - 2 \amp = 10 \amp \amp \blert{\text{Subtract 10 from both sides.}}\\
x^2 - x - 12 \amp = 0 \amp \amp \blert{\text{Factor the left side.}}\\
(x - 4)(x + 3) \amp= 0 \amp \amp \blert{\text{Apply the zero-factor principle.}}
\end{align*}
We find \(x = 4\) or \(x = -3\text{.}\) But we must check the original equation for extraneous solutions. The number \(-3\) is not a solution of the original equation, because neither \(\log_{10}{(x + 1)}\) nor \(\log_{10}{(x - 2)}\) is defined for \(x = -3\text{.}\) The apparent solution \(x=-3\) is extraneous, and the solution of the original equation is \(4\text{.}\)
Checkpoint10.1.18.Practice 7.
Solve \(~\log_{10}{x} + \log_{10}{2}= 3\)
\(x=\)
Hint.
Hint: Rewrite the left side as a single logarithm.
Rewrite the equation in exponential form.
Solve for \(x\text{.}\)
Check for extraneous solutions.
Answer.
\(500\)
Solution.
\(x=500\)
Checkpoint10.1.19.QuickCheck 5.
We cannot take a logarithm of
a negative number or zero
a fraction
a variable expression
.
After solving a logarithmic equation, we must check for
extraneous solutions
irrational numbers
.
If an equation contains more than one log, we must first combine them into
a common denominator
a single logarithm
.
If there is only one log involved, we write the equation in
standard
general
exponential
point-slope
form.
Answer1.
\(\text{a negative number or zero}\)
Answer2.
\(\text{extraneous solutions}\)
Answer3.
\(\text{a single logarithm}\)
Answer4.
\(\text{exponential}\)
Solution.
a negative number or zero
extraneous solutions
a single logarithm
exponential form
Exercises10.1.6Problem Set 10.1
Warm Up
Exercise Group.
For Problems 1–4, convert the logarithmic equation into exponential form.
1.
\(\log_9{729}=y\)
Answer.
\(9^y=729\)
2.
\(\log_b{8}=-3\)
3.
\(\log_{10}{C}=-4.5\)
Answer.
\(10^{-4.5}=C\)
4.
\(\log_m{n}=p\)
Exercise Group.
For Problems 5–8, write the expression as a single log with a coefficient of 1.
Choose the graph for each function described below.
The area, \(A\text{,}\) of a pentagon is a quadratic function of the length \(l\text{,}\) of its side.
The strength, \(F\text{,}\) of a hurricane varies inversely with its speed, \(s\text{.}\)
The price of food has increased 3% every year for a decade.
The magnitude, \(M\text{,}\) of a star is a logarithmic function of its brightness, \(I\text{.}\)
The speed of the train increased at a constant rate.
if you don’t practice a foreign language, you lose \(\dfrac{1}{8}\) of the words in your working vocabulary each year.
23.
How large must \(x\) be before the graph of \(y=\log_{10}{x}\) reaches a height of 4?
How large must \(x\) be before the graph of \(y=\log_{10}{x}\) reaches a height of 8?
Answer.
10,000
100,000,000
24.
How large must \(x\) be before the graph of \(y=\log_2{x}\) reaches a height of 5?
How large must \(x\) be before the graph of \(y=\log_2{x}\) reaches a height of 10?
Exercise Group.
For Problems 25–28, solve the logarithmic equation.
25.
\(\log_{10} x + \log_{10}(x + 21) = 2\)
Answer.
\(4\)
26.
\(\log_{8} (x+5) - \log_{8}2 = 1\)
27.
\(\log_{10} (x+2) + \log_{10}(x-1) = 1\)
Answer.
3
28.
\(\log_{3} (x-2) - \log_{3}(x+1) = 3\)
Applications
29.
In a psychology experiment, volunteers were asked to memorize a list of nonsense words, and 24 hours later they were tested to see how many of the words they recalled. On average, the subjects had forgotten 20% of the words. The researchers found that the more lists their volunteers memorized, the larger the fraction of words they were unable to recall. (Source: Underwood, Scientific American, vol. 210, no. 3)
Number of lists, \(n\)
\(1\)
\(4\)
\(8\)
\(12\)
\(16\)
\(20\)
Percent forgotten, \(F\)
\(20\)
\(40\)
\(55\)
\(66\)
\(74\)
\(80\)
Plot the data. What sort of function seems to fit the data points?
Psychologists often describe rates of forgetting by logarithmic functions. Graph the function
on the same graph with your data. Comment on the fit.
What happens to the values of \(f(n)\) as \(n\) grows increasingly large? Does this behavior accurately reflect the situation being modeled?
Answer.
The graph resembles a logarithmic function. The function is close to the points but appears too steep at first and not steep enough after \(n = 15\text{.}\) Overall, it is a good fit.
\(f\) grows (more and more slowly) without bound. \(f\) will eventually exceed \(100\) per cent, but no one can forget more than 100% of what is learned.
30.
The water velocity at any point in a stream or river is related to the logarithm of the depth at that point. For the Hoback River near Bondurant, Wyoming,
\begin{equation*}
v = 2.63 + 1.03 \log {d}
\end{equation*}
where \(v\) is the velocity of the water, in feet per second, and \(d\) is the vertical distance from the stream bed, in feet, at that point. For Pole Creek near Pinedale, Wyoming,
\begin{equation*}
v = 1.96 + 0.65 \log {d}
\end{equation*}
Both streams are \(1.2\) feet deep at the locations mentioned. (Source: Leopold, Luna, Wolman, and Gordon, 1992)
Complete the table of values for each stream.
Distance from bed (feet)
\(0.2\)
\(0.4\)
\(0.6\)
\(0.8\)
\(1.0\)
\(1.2\)
Velocity, Hoback River, (ft/sec)
Velocity, Pole Creek (ft/sec)
If you double the distance from the bed, by how much does the velocity increase in each stream?
Plot both functions on the same graph.
The average velocity of the entire stream can be closely approximated as follows: Measure the velocity at 20% of the total depth of the stream from the surface and at 80% of the total depth, then average these two values. Find the average velocity for the Hoback River and for Pole Creek.
31.
In Example 10.1.11 of this section, we considered a formula for the average life expectancy in the U.S. as a function of years after 1900,