## Section20.7Testing with pytest

Writing automated unit tests is very helpful in reducing the effort needed to build software. However, the simple approach described so far is inadequate to help programmers realize the full benefits of unit testing. In this section, we introduce a unit test framework which addresses some practical issues that crop up when you try to apply unit testing techniques in software development projects. Here are some of the issues with using plain assertion unit tests:

• Simple assert-based tests don't give very good diagnostic information when they fail. It would help to have better reporting. For example, when an assert fails, it would help us in diagnosing the error to see what value the function actually produced. An AssertionError doesn't give us that information.

• We need a better way to organize our unit test code. So far, I've suggested creating separate programs to hold the functions under test together with their unit test code. But that isn't practical for most projects. For example, functions often need to call other functions in the program in order to do their work. It's not convenient to bring those auxiliary functions over into separate test programs.

• We need a way to keep the unit test around and use it even after the function is first developed to help us catch bugs that are inadvertently introduced into the function when we make modifications to it.

Unit testing frameworks help to address these issues, by improving error reporting, providing a structure for programmers to organize their unit tests, and making it possible to leverage existing unit tests when making enhancements to functions. pytest is one unit testing framework that provides these benefits.

For our purposes, the attractive thing about pytest is that writing unit tests with pytest feels a lot like writing unit tests using plain assert statements. The only difference is that you put your assert statements into test functions. Here's an example of how it works:

This code example defines two functions: the function to be tested, round6, and a function named test_round6 that contains unit test code. When using the pytest approach, you write your unit test as a function whose name must start with the prefix test_. Inside the function, you write normal assert statements to test the desired function. Notice that you do not write a line to call the unit test function. Instead, when you launch pytest to run the unit tests, pytest scans your script and executes only the functions with the prefix test_.

This ActiveCode environment simulates pytest by scanning for and executing functions with a test_ prefix when you click Run. Go ahead and try it - rename the test_round6 function to test_itworks and try running the test again.

### Subsection20.7.1Organizing pytest Functions

The example above uses a single pytest function, with both asserts in the same pytest function. The disadvantage of that approach is that the first failing assert prevents the rest of the asserts from being tested.

If you want, you can write multiple pytest functions to test a single function. That way, when an assert fails in one test function, the rest of the pytest functions can still run and report success or failure.

You can name your pytest functions with names that indicate what they are testing. For example, try changing the ActiveCode example above so that it defines two test functions: one named test_round6_rounds_up, containing the first assert, and one named test_round6_rounds_down, containing the second assert. Your code should look like this:

def test_round6_rounds_up():
assert round6(9.7) == 10

def test_round6_rounds_down():
assert round6(8.5) == 8


If you use good pytest function names, when a pytest function has an assertion failure, you can easily tell what the problem was.

### Subsection20.7.2Using pytest

To use pytest, you must first install it using the pip command. Open your computer's command line window (not the Python interpreter) and enter the following command to install:

• Windows:

pip install pytest

• Mac/Linux:

pip3 install pytest


After you have installed pytest, you run pytest unit tests from the command line window. To run pytest unit tests, try copying the code from the ActiveCode example above and pasting it into a Python file named (ex.) myround.py. Then, use the pytest command to run your tests by opening a command window, navigating to the folder where you stored myround.py, and executing the following command:

pytest myround.py


### Subsection20.7.3Understanding pytest Failure Reports

When you run the pytest command and an assertion fails, you see a report like this:

=============================== FAILURES ================================
______________________________ test_round6 ______________________________
def test_round6():
assert round6(9.7) == 10
>       assert round6(8.5) == 8
E       assert 9 == 8
E        +  where 9 = round6(8.5)

myround.py:8: AssertionError


Let's take a closer look at this report to understand what it's telling you.

1. First, notice the line with the > symbol:

>       assert round6(8.5) == 8


The > symbol points to the line with the assertion that failed.

2. Next, notice the lines marked E:

E       assert 9 == 8
E        +  where 9 = round6(8.5)


This indicates that the call to round6(8.5) returned the value 9, instead of the value 8. The value 9 is the actual result of the function. Knowing the value actually produced by the function can help you to troubleshoot the bug and correct the problem.

### Subsection20.7.4Integrated Unit Testing with pytest

When you use the pytest framework, you can include pytest test functions in your main program, along with the rest of your program code. This allows you to keep your tests together with the functions that they test, and you can run either your program (using the python command) or the unit tests (using the pytest command).

Take a look at this example that shows a function (round6, containing a bug), together with a unit test function (test_round6), and a main program that uses round6:

def round6(num: float) -> int:
return int(num + .6)

# ---- automated unit test ----

def test_round6():
assert round6(9.7) == 10
assert round6(8.5) == 8

# ----- main program follows -----

if __name__ == '__main__':
num = float(input('Enter a value:'))
print('The value rounded is: ' + str(round6(num)))


Notice how the main program is inside the if statement on line 12. This if condition is true when the program is run using the python command, and allows the main program to execute. When the unit tests are executed using the pytest command, any top-level code outside a function in the python file gets executed when pytest scans the script looking for unit test functions with a test_ prefix. The if condition is false in this scenario, and that prevents the main program from executing when pytest is scanning the script. If that explanation didn't make total sense, just remember: in order for pytest to work correctly, any code that is part of the main program must be inside an if statement like the one in this example, so that it doesn't interfere with pytests's unit testing process.

#### Checkpoint20.7.1.

Write a pytest unit test function named test_grade to test a function with the following specification. Your asserts should check that the function produces an appropriate value for each of the three postcondition cases.

def grade(score):
"""Determines letter grade given a numeric score

Precondition: 0 <= score <= 100
Postcondition: Returns 'A' if 90 <= score <= 100,
'B' if 80 <= score < 90, 'F' if 0 <= score < 80
"""

Solution.

The following is a suggested pytest unit test.

def test_grade():
assert grade(92) == 'A'
assert grade(85) == 'B'
assert grade(69) == 'F'

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