10.2. Critical Systems

Many critical systems demonstrate common behaviors:

Critical systems are usually unstable. For example, to keep water in a partially frozen state requires active control of the temperature. If the system is near the critical temperature, a small deviation tends to move the system into one phase or the other.

Many natural systems exhibit characteristic behaviors of criticality, but if critical points are unstable, they should not be common in nature. This is the puzzle Bak, Tang and Wiesenfeld address. Their solution is called self-organized criticality (SOC), where “self-organized” means that from any initial condition, the system moves toward a critical state, and stays there, without external control.

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