# 8.3. The Graph Abstract Data Type¶

The graph abstract data type (ADT) is defined as follows:

`Graph()`

creates a new, empty graph.`addVertex(vert)`

adds an instance of`Vertex`

to the graph.`addEdge(fromVert, toVert)`

Adds a new, directed edge to the graph that connects two vertices.`addEdge(fromVert, toVert, weight)`

Adds a new, weighted, directed edge to the graph that connects two vertices.`getVertex(vertKey)`

finds the vertex in the graph named`vertKey`

.`getVertices()`

returns the list of all vertices in the graph.`in`

returns`True`

for a statement of the form`vertex in graph`

, if the given vertex is in the graph,`False`

otherwise.

Beginning with the formal definition for a graph there are several ways
we can implement the graph ADT in Python. We will see that there are
trade-offs in using different representations to implement the ADT
described above. There are two well-known implementations of a graph,
the **adjacency matrix** and the **adjacency list**. We will explain
both of these options, and then implement one as a Python class.