# 2.10. Glossary¶

## 2.10.1. Definitions¶

Causation The action of causing something.

CSV File: Is a comma-separated values file that allows us to save data in a tabular format.

Choropleth: Takes in a set of geographic data and uses a map to show another collection of data.

Correlation Matrix: Is a table used to show the correlation between different variables in each cell.

Correlation: Is a relationship between two or more things.

Data analysis: Is the process in which data is inspected, cleansed, transformed, and modeled to discover useful information, conclusions, and supporting decision-making.

Google Sheets: Is a spreadsheet application that allows users to manipulate data.

Histogram: Is a graph used to display data.

Pearson correlation: Is a type of measurement; it measures the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two variables. -1 has a strong negative relationship, and +1 has a strong positive relationship.

Pivot table: Is a function used in Google Sheets to summarize, organize, sort, and perform other operations on data sets.

Standard Deviation: Is used to measure the degree of variation of a set of values.

## 2.10.2. Keywords¶

`#N/A` In Google sheets, it is an error that shows up to indicate that there is missing information.

`AVERAGEIF` Is a function in Google sheets that returns the average value in a range of cells based on specific criteria.

`AVERAGE` Will ignore the text, and return the average value in a dataset.

`CORREL` We can use the CORREL function to calculate the Pearson correlation between two ranges of data.

`COUNTIF` Counts the number of cells in a range that meets a specific condition.

`IF` This function uses a conditional and returns one value if it is ‘TRUE’ and another if it is ‘FALSE’.

`IFERROR` Detects errors to replace it with a value that you have specified. If it does not encounter any errors, it returns the original value.

`INDEX` Returns the content of a cell, specified by row and column offset.

`MATCH` The MATCH function allows us to search for a value in a range of cells and return the position of that value

`MAXIFS` In Google sheets, it is a function that returns the maximum value in a range of cells that meet specific conditions.

`MEDIAN` Will determine the middle value in a numeric dataset.

`MINIFS` A function used in Google Sheets that returns the smallest value that meets a specific criteria

`MIN` Will return the minimum value in a numeric dataset

`MODE` Will look for and return the most commonly occurring value in a dataset.

`STDEV` Calculates the standard deviation.

`SUM` This function returns the sum of a series of numbers.

`SUMIF` Uses a conditional sum across a range and returns it.

`TRIM` is used to remove repeated spaces in the text.

`UNIQUE` Returns unique and discarding duplicate rows in a specific range. Unique returns the row in which the unique value first appears.

`VLOOKUP` Is a function used in Google Sheets to extract and return a value from a table based on a specific condition.

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