# 17.11. Summary¶

This chapter included the following concepts from computing.

• Body Syntonic - Body syntonic means experiences related to knowledge of your body. You can use your knowledge of how to move your body to help you understand how to move the turtle objects.

• Comment - A comment describes one or more lines of code. Comments are ignored by the computer. A comment in Python starts with `#`. The computer will ignore everything from the start of the comment to the end of that line.

• Object - Turtles are objects in Python. Objects can have data and behavior. A turtle object knows its heading (data) and can go forward and turn (behavior).

• Method - Functions that are defined in the Turtle class are called methods. Methods define the behaviors for the objects of a class (what they can do).

## 17.11.1. Summary of Turtle Methods¶

The table below shows some of the turtle methods that you might find useful. See https://docs.python.org/3/library/turtle.html for a complete list.

Name

Input

Description

backward

amount

Moves the turle backward by the specified amount

begin_fill

None

Starts a shape to fill

circle

Draws a circle with the specified radius

color

colorname

Sets the color for the pen. Use ‘red’, ‘black’, etc. If you give it two colors the second is the fill color.

end_fill

None

Ends a shape to fill

fillcolor

colorname

Sets the fill color to the specified color. Use ‘red’, ‘black’, etc.

forward

amount

Moves the turtle forward by the specified amount

goto

x,y

Moves the turtle to position x,y

left

angle

Turns the turtle counter clockwise by the specified angle

pendown

None

Puts down the turtles tail so that it draws when it moves

penup

None

Picks up the turtles tail so that it doesn’t draw when it moves

pensize

width

Sets the width of the pen for drawing

right

angle

Turns the turtle clockwise by the specified angle

angle

Turns the turtle to face the given heading. East is 0, north is 90, west is 180, and south is 270.

Turtle

None

Creates and returns a new turtle object

## 17.11.2. Summary of Screen Methods¶

The table below shows the screen methods that you might find useful.

Name

Input

Description

bgcolor

color

Sets the color for the screen background

bgpic

file_name

Save a picture of the screen to the file_name

exitonclick

none

Stops the program from exiting until you click the window - use if running turtle code outside of the ebook