# More Turtle Procedures and Functions¶

Turtles can do more than go forward, turn left, and turn right. The table below lists more turtle procedures and functions.

Name

Input

Description

backward

amount

Moves the turle backward by the specified amount

color

colorname

Sets the color for drawing. Use ‘red’, ‘black’, etc

forward

amount

Moves the turtle forward by the specified amount

goto

x,y

Moves the turtle to position x,y

left

angle

Turns the turtle counter clockwise by the specified angle

pendown

None

Puts down the turtles tail so that it draws when it moves

penup

None

Picks up the turtles tail so that it doesn’t draw when it moves

pensize

width

Sets the width of the pen for drawing

right

angle

Turns the turtle clockwise by the specified angle

angle

Turns the turtle to face the given heading. East is 0, north is 90, west is 180, and south is 270.

Turtle

None

Creates and returns a new turtle object

You can draw a block style C with a turtle. Can you draw more than one letter? You would have to use the `penup()` procedure to pick up the pen and then move to the new location to draw the second letter and then put the pen down using `pendown()` as shown in the example below.

The space that the turtle draws in is 320 by 320 pixels. The center of the space is at x=0, y=0.

Figure 1: The coordinates for the drawing space. Note that the center is x = 0 and y = 0.

The program below uses the `goto(x,y)` to move to the top left corner before drawing a square that nearly fills the drawing space.

Note

Remember to put the pen down again after you have picked it up if you want to draw a line!

Mixed up programs

You can change the color and pensize that you draw with as well.

Use the area below to try to draw to draw your initials in block style with two different colors.