12.4. Web Server Gateway Interface

The Web Server Gateway Interface (WSGI) and pronounced Whiskey (what else would you put in your Flask?). Is a standard defined by the Python Software Foundation that describes how a web server communicates with a web application. In addition the specification allows for applications to be layered in order to respond to a single request.

A web server that is WSGI compliant only receives a request and passes the request on to an application object, it then forwards the response from the object back to the browser.

From our perspective as application builders, WSGI is very simple. It has the following four features:

12.4.1. The Application Callable

The app object created by app = Flask(__name__) is a WSGI compliant object, meaning that it is a callable, that takes two parameters, an environment dictionary and a function. It returns an iterable. It is quite complex and does a lot of work for us behind the scenes. To get a better appreciation for that, lets look at a simpler version of a WSGI compliant object, a function called hello_world.

from cgi import parse_qs

def hello_world(environ, start_response):
    # parse_qs turns QUERY_STRING into a nice dictionary
    parameters = parse_qs(environ.get('QUERY_STRING', ''))
    if 'subject' in parameters:
        # all values are lists, to accommodate checkboxes
        subject = parameters['subject'][0]
        subject = 'World'
    start_response('200 OK', [('Content-Type', 'text/html')])
    return ['''Hello {subject} Hello {subject} '''.format(subject=subject)]

if __name__ == '__main__':
    from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server
    srv = make_server('', 8000, hello_world)

First, an example of parse_qs:

>>> parse_qs("foo=bar&blah=baz")
{'foo': ['bar'], 'blah': ['baz']}
>>> parse_qs("foo=bar&blah=baz&foo=sdfsdf")
{'foo': ['bar', 'sdfsdf'], 'blah': ['baz']}

The wsgiref.simple_server is a simple web server instance that acts as a container for our WSGI object. Every time a request comes in, the hello world function is called passing in the environ object and a function that it provides that we can call to provide our response status as well as any headers we want to set up.

In our hello_world function we check to see if there is a name called subject in the QUERY_STRING. We then call the start_response function to set up our response code and content-type header. Finally we return an iterable – in this case a string – that will be returned to the browser to be rendered.

Lest you think this is overly simple, we can even do some routing in this function by looking at the PATH_INFO environment variable. Try this yourself. Modify the hello world function to return Hello, if the route is /hello and Goodbye if the route is /bye

Write a single function with a big long if statement is not a very scalable way to build a web development framework. So lets make some improvments. First instead of a function lets create a class where the instances of the class are callable.

Our app object in Flask is an instance of the Flask class. Lets look at a simpler class based implementation of a WSGI app, and then look at another example that points us in the direction of how Flask extends the idea into a full framework.

We will do this by implementing a base class that implements most of the WSGI deails and leaves the actual application code up to us. All we will need to do is write a class that inherits from our class and implements a get method.

from cgi import parse_qs
class WSGIRequestHandler:

    def __init__(self):
        self.request = {}
        self.response = {'Content-Type':'text/plain'}

    def __call__(self, environ, start_response):

        appiter = None
        self.request['args'] = parse_qs(environ['QUERY_STRING'])
        appiter = self.get()
        start_response('200 OK',list(self.response.items()))
        for item in appiter:
            yield item

        # wsgi applications might have a close function. If it exists
        # it *must* be called.
        if hasattr(appiter, 'close'):

class Hello(WSGIRequestHandler):
    def get(self):
        name = self.request['args'].get('subject','world')
        return ['Hello {0}'.format(name)]

if __name__ == '__main__':
    from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server
    srv = make_server('localhost', 8080, Hello())

This example illustrates an instance of a class as a callable, that implements the WSGI interface. Further it shows a way that we can hide much of the details of the WSGI interface from application programmers by using inheritance.

The WSGIRequestHandler class implements an __call__ method that relies on a subclass that implements a get method to build the actual page. Different applications can implement many subclasses of the WSGIRequestHandler class to handle the various requests.

The __init__ method creates two instance variables to handle response headers, as well as incoming environment variables such as cookies and arguments from a submitted form.

the main program in this script imports a make_server function which assembles a web server to handle WSGI requests, on a host, port. It also needs a callable application object. In this case an instance of the Hello class. We will shortly look at how add dispatch functionality to the example to show how to make a WSGI server that can map URLs to classes so thate it can respond to a variety of requests.

There are two big things that we want to add to our WSGI application:

  1. URL mapping

  2. Error Handling

In the decorators module we looked at how Flask uses decorators to associate a function with a particular URL pattern. In this section we will not use a decorator but will just create a list of URL to callable mappings directly and see how that works with the rest of our implementation.

urls = [
    (r'^$', Index),
    (r'hello/?$', Hello),
    (r'goodbye/?)$', Goodbye)

This list of tuples maps three differnt patterns to 3 different callables that provide a simple response. All of them are very similar to the Hello class shown above.

Given that list we need an WSGI compliant callable that can examine the incoming request and forward the call to the appropriate class.

def router(environ, start_response):
    path = environ.get('PATH_INFO', '').lstrip('/')
    for regex, callback in urls:
        match = re.search(regex, path)
        if match is not None:
            environ['myapp.url_args'] = match.groups()
            return callback()(environ, start_response)
    return not_found(environ, start_response)

def not_found(environ, start_response):
    """Called if no URL matches."""
    start_response('404 NOT FOUND', [('Content-Type', 'text/plain')])
    return ['Not Found']

Now the main program looks like this:

if __name__ == '__main__':
    from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server
    srv = make_server('localhost', 8080, router)

The router callable is passed in to the server as the main application object. The keys to the router function are as follows:

  1. Extract the path from the incoming PATH_INFO environment variable

  2. Match that path against the regular expressions provided in the urls list.

  3. Forward the request to the callable that should handle it using the following: return callback()(environ,start_response)

That last line looks a bit crazy, so let’s break it down. Remember that WSGI compliant callables must accept an environment and a start_response function, and they must return an iterable. So the return statement must first evaluate its argument: callback()(environ,start_response). This is evaluated from left to right. The reference callback is set in the for loop and will be set to the callable that matches the current regular expression. In our class This will be a class. So callback() creates an instance of the class that matches the regular expression. As soon as the instance is created its __call__ method is invoked by the (environ,start_resonse) operator. Which in turn will invoke the get method on the class which returns an iterable. That iterable is returned by the return statement in the router function.

OK, so now that we can call the right function, let’s look at how to handle errors the WSGI way. Error handling is a nice example of how you can use middleware. Or you can think of it in Shrek terms: Applications are like Ogres, they have layers. To implement a middleware layer we simply implement another WSGI compliant class, that takes an inner WSGI object as a parameter for its constructor. Each outer layer has access to the results of the layer below it, and can modify the results of the layer below it before returning it to the layer above.

class ExceptionMiddleware:
    """The middleware we use."""

    def __init__(self, app):
        self.app = app

    def __call__(self, environ, start_response):
        """Call the application can catch exceptions."""
        appiter = None
        # just call the application and send the output back
        # unchanged but catch exceptions
            appiter = self.app(environ, start_response)
            for item in appiter:
                yield item
        # if an exception occours we get the exception information
        # and prepare a traceback we can render
            e_type, e_value, tb = exc_info()
            traceback = ['Traceback (most recent call last):']
            traceback += format_tb(tb)
            traceback.append('%s: %s' % (e_type.__name__, e_value))
            # we might have not a stated response by now. try
            # to start one with the status code 500 or ignore an
            # raised exception if the application already started one.
                start_response('500 INTERNAL SERVER ERROR', [
                               ('Content-Type', 'text/plain')])
            yield '\n'.join(traceback)

        # wsgi applications might have a close function. If it exists
        # it *must* be called.
        if hasattr(appiter, 'close'):

You will notice that this is a very similar class to the base class for WSGI applications except that it handles the call to the lower layer inside a try/except block. If any of the lower layers fail they will be caught by the try except at this layer and the traceback will be rendered on the browser page, along with the 500 internal server error message. There are many uses for middleware including session management, form authentication, You can find a list of open source WSGI middleware handling user login/logouts, and more you can find a list here. Although for our continued use of Flask these are not necessary, as we will be using some extensions that are specific to flask, which may very well be implemented using the middleware pattern.

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