9.3. Operations on Strings¶
In general, you cannot perform mathematical operations on strings, even if the
strings look like numbers. The following are illegal (assuming that
has type string):
message - 1 "Hello" / 123 message * "Hello" "15" + 2
+ operator does work with strings, but for strings, the
+ operator represents concatenation, not addition. Concatenation means
joining the two operands by linking them end-to-end. For example:
The output of this program is
banana nut bread. The space before the word
nut is part of the string and is necessary to produce the space between
the concatenated strings. Take out the space and run it again.
* operator also works on strings. It performs repetition. For example,
'FunFunFun'. One of the operands has to be a string and the
other has to be an integer.
This interpretation of
* makes sense by analogy with
addition and multiplication. Just as
4*3 is equivalent to
"Go"*3 to be the same as
"Go"+"Go"+"Go", and it is. Note also in the last
example that the order of operations for
+ is the same as it was for arithmetic.
The repetition is done before the concatenation. If you want to cause the concatenation to be
done first, you will need to use parenthesis.
Check your understanding