9.12. Glossary


An example from a category. My cat is an instance of the category “feline things.” Every object is an instance of some type.

instance variable:

One of the named data items that make up an structure. Each structure has its own copy of the instance variables for its type.

constant reference parameter:

A parameter that is passed by reference but that cannot be modified.

pure function:

A function whose result depends only on its parameters, and that has so effects other than returning a value.

functional programming style:

A style of program design in which the majority of functions are pure.


A function that changes one or more of the objects it receives as parameters, and usually returns void.

fill-in function:

A function that takes an “empty” object as a parameter and fills in its instance variables instead of generating a return value.


A set of instructions for solving a class of problems by a mechanical, unintelligent process.

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