Concerned With dynamic, unpredictable, and multi-dimensional complex systems consisting of a collection of interconnected relationships and parts characterized by its non-linearity.
The effect wherein a population of oscillating units with diverse natural frequencies and weak interactions with one another evolves to spontaneously exhibit collective oscillations at a common frequency.
It is a model used for simulating actions and interactions between autonomous agents to assess their effects on the system as a whole.
Claims that are presented as scientific and factual but are incompatible with the scientific method.
Law-based models proven by mathematical derivation.
According to this view, all events are inevitable and are caused by prior events.
It may be analyzed statistically but may not be predicted precisely due to a random pattern or probability distribution.