# 10.7. Chapter 10 - Summary¶

Chapter 10 included the following concepts from computing.

**Loop Body**- The statement or statements that are repeated in a loop. In Python indention is used to show the statements that are part of the body of a loop.**Total Turtle Trip Theorem**- The total turtle trip theorem states that the turtle will draw a closed figure with n sides when the sum of the angles turned is a multiple of 360.**Turtle Geometry**- Turtle Geometry is a book by Hal Abelson and Andrea diSessa that explores math using turtles.

## 10.7.1. Summary of Python Keywords and Functions¶

**def**- The`def`

keyword is used to define a procedure or function in Python. The line must also end with a`:`

and the body of the procedure or function must be indented 4 spaces.**for**- A`for`

loop is a programming statement that tells the computer to repeat a statement or a set of statements. It is one type of loop.**print**- The`print`

statement in Python will print the value of the items passed to it.**range**- The`range`

function in Python returns a list of consecutive values. If the range function is passed one value it returns a list with the numbers from 0 up to and not including the passed number. For example,`range(5)`

returns a list of`[0,1,2,3,4]`

. If the range function is passed two numbers separated by a comma it returns a list including the first number and then up to but not including the second number. For example,`range(1,4)`

returns the list`[1, 2, 3]`

. If it is passed three values`range(start,end,step)`

it returns all the numbers from start to one less than end changing by step. For example,`range(0,10,2)`

returns`[0,2,4,6,8]`

.**while**- A`while`

loop is a programming statement that tells the computer to repeat a statement or a set of statements. It repeats the**body of the loop**while a**logical expression**is true.

## 10.7.2. Summary of Turtle Functions and Procedures¶

The table below shows the turtle functions and procedures that we have covered so far.

Name |
Input |
Description |
---|---|---|

backward |
amount |
Moves the turle backward by the specified amount |

color |
colorname |
Sets the color for drawing. Use ‘red’, ‘black’, etc |

forward |
amount |
Moves the turtle forward by the specified amount |

goto |
x,y |
Moves the turtle to position x,y |

left |
angle |
Turns the turtle counter clockwise by the specified angle |

pendown |
None |
Puts down the turtles tail so that it draws when it moves |

penup |
None |
Picks up the turtles tail so that it doesn’t draw when it moves |

pensize |
width |
Sets the width of the pen for drawing |

right |
angle |
Turns the turtle clockwise by the specified angle |

setheading |
angle |
Turns the turtle to face the given heading. East is 0, north is 90, west is 180, and south is 270. |

shape |
shape name |
Takes a shape name as a string to use for the turtle. The allowed values are “arrow”, “turtle”, “circle”, “square”, “triangle”, and “classic”. |

stamp |
None |
Leaves a copy of the turtle shape at the current location |

Turtle |
None |
Creates and returns a new turtle object |

Note

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