2.6. Vectors

Vectors are similar to arrays in a way that they use contiguous storage locations, which means that their elements can be accessed and traversed with the help of iterators, and they can also be accessed randomly using indexes.

However, vectors have a dynamic size meaning that whenever a new element is inserted or deleted, their size changes automatically. A new element can be inserted into or deleted from any part of a vector, and automatic reallocation for other existing items in the vector is applied. Nevertheless, computing time for insertion and deletion might differ depending on the location of the item, and how many items need to be reallocated. For example, the last item in a vector is removed at a constant time, because no resizing of the vector is needed for this operation, while an item is removed or inserted into the beginning or the middle of a vector at a linear time.

Two common operations are indexing and assigning to an index position. Both of these operations take the same amount of time no matter how large the vector becomes. When an operation like this is independent of the size of the vector they are \(O(1)\).

Another very common programming task is to grow a vector. There is one way to create a longer vector. You can use the push_back() method. The push_back() method is \(O(1)\).

Let’s look at two different ways we might generate an vector of n numbers starting with 0.

First we’ll try to the use push_back() method. Listing 3 shows the code for making our vector.

Listing 3

#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
using namespace std;

void test1(){
    vector <int> vect;
    for (int i = 0; i < 1000; i++){

int main() {

To capture the time it takes for each of our functions to execute we will use C++’s ctime module. The ctime module is designed to allow C++ developers to make cross-platform timing measurements by running functions in a consistent environment and using timing mechanisms that are as similar as possible across operating systems.

To use ctime you create two clock objects. The first clock object marks the current time(start time); the second clock object marks the current time after the function runs a set number of times(end time). To get the total runtime, you subtract the start time from the end time to get the elapsed time. The following session shows how long it takes to run each of our test functions 1000 times within a for loop.

In the experiment above the statement that we are timing is the function call to test1(). From the experiment we see that the push_back operation at 0.018 milliseconds.

Now that we have seen how performance can be measured concretely you can look at Table 2 to see the Big-O efficiency of all the basic vector operations. When pop_back() is called, the element at the end of the vector is removed and it takes \(O(1)\) but when erase() is called on the first element in the list or anywhere in the middle it is \(O(n)\). The reason for this lies in how C++ chooses to implement vectors. When an item is taken from the front of the vector, in C++ implementation, all the other elements in the vector are shifted one position closer to the beginning. This may seem silly to you now, but if you look at Table 2 you will see that this implementation also allows the index operation to be \(O(1)\). This is a tradeoff that the C++ implementers thought was a good one.

Table 2: Big-O Efficiency of C++ Vector Operators
Operation Big-O Efficiency
index [] O(1)
index assignment O(1)
push_back O(1)
pop_back() O(1)
erase(i) O(n)
insert(i,item) O(n)

As a way of demonstrating this difference in performance let’s do another experiment using the ctime module. Our goal is to be able to verify the performance of the pop_back() operation on a vector of a known size when the program pops from the end of the vector using pop_back(), and again when the program pops from the beginning of the vector using erase(). We will also want to measure this time for vectors of different sizes. What we would expect to see is that the time required to pop from the end of the vector will stay constant even as the vector grows in size, while the time to pop from the beginning of the vector will continue to increase as the vector grows.

Listing 4 shows one attempt to measure the difference between the pop_back() and erase(). As you can see from this first example, popping from the end takes 0.000023 milliseconds, whereas popping from the beginning takes 0.473672 milliseconds.

There are a couple of things to notice about Listing 4. This approach allows us to time just the single pop_back() statement and get the most accurate measure of the time for that single operation. Because the timer repeats 1000 times it is also important to point out that the vector is decreasing in size by 1 each time through the loop. But since the initial list is two million elements in size we only reduce the overall size by \(0.05\%\)

Listing 4

Next Section - 2.7. Hash Tables