Computer science is the study of problem solving.
Computer science uses abstraction as a tool for representing both processes and data.
Abstract data types allow programmers to manage the complexity of a problem domain by hiding the details of the data.
C++ is a powerful object-oriented language.
All variables must be declared before use in C++.
C++ has typical built-in numeric types:
intis for integers and
doubleare used for floating point depending on the number of digits desired.
C++ has the Boolean type
The character data type
charholds a single character which is encased in single quotes.
Pointers are a type of variable that stores a memory address. To declare a pointer, an
*is used before the variable name that is supposed to store the location.
A statically allocated C++ array is an ordered collection of one or more C++ data values of identical type stored in contiguous memory.
A vector is a dynamically allocated array with many useful methods.
C++ strings are a sequential collection of zero or more characters.
A hash table is used to store keys-value pairs. It applies a related hash function to the key in order to compute the location of the associated value. Look-up is typically very fast.
A set is an unordered collection of unique values.
Arrays, vectors, and strings are C++ sequential collections.
Hash tables and sets are nonsequential collections of data.
In C++, a function definition requires a name, a group of parameters, a return type, and a body.
Non-fruitful functions in C++ must contain the keyword
voidin its function definition.
You can pass variables by value as well as by reference in C++ functions. Passing by reference utilizes the use of pointers.
Pass by reference is useful when you require a function to return multiple variables.
To pass an array to a function you need to use an array parameter. The array parameter is denoted by the array variable name followed by set of square brackets ([ and ]).
Defining a new meaning for an already existing operator (such as the arithmetic operators plus “+” or times “*”) is called overloading the operator. The operators ::, #, ., and ? are reserved and cannot be overloaded.
Some operators such as =, , () and -> can only be overloaded as member functions of a class and not as global functions.
Classes allow programmers to implement abstract data types.
Programmers can override standard methods as well as create new methods.
Classes can be organized into hierarchies.
A class constructor should always invoke the constructor of its parent before continuing on with its own data and behavior.