1.18. Glossary

abstract data type/ADT

A mathematical model for data.

abstraction

Focusing on desired behaviors and properties while disregarding what is irrelevant/unimportant

access keywords

Keywords such as ‘’public’’, private’’, and ‘’protected’’ that indicates what class properties/behaviors a user can change

address-of

The address-of operator (&) is used to access the address of a C++ variable.

algorithm

A set of instructions or rules given to complete a task.

AND

A primitive logic gate. In this gate, both A AND B must be true in order to be true.

argument

Data passed to a parameter.

array

A data structure consisting of an ordered collection of data elements of identical type in which each element can be identified by an array index.

array parameters

Used to pass an array of arguments.

atomic data type

Basic data type that cannot be broken down into any simpler data elements.

base class

A class from which other classes are derived.

bool

Keyword for Boolean data type.

char

Keyword for character data type that stores a single character.

class

A template for creating (instantiating) objects, for providing initial values for state via member variables, and for implementations of behavior via member functions or methods

class methods

The functions and methods that belong to a class that describe what the class can do.

collection

A grouping of a number of data items (possibly only zero or one) that have some shared significance or need to be operated upon together.

compiler

A program that converts high-level language into machine language.

computable

The capability of being copmuted or solved.

const

Keyword that makes a variable or value immutable. i.e. constant and unchanging.

constructor

A class’ special function that initializes an object of that class.

data abstraction

The act of only providing essential information within your work. Representing your data without reavling the details.

data structure

The organization of data that allows for improved search, storage, and sorting capability.

data types

A classification of various types of data, such as floating-point, integer, or Boolean, the possible values for that type, operations that can be done on that type, and how the values of that type are stored.

dereference

Follow a pointer to its referenced memory location and read the data there.

derived class

A derived class is a class created or derived from another existing class.

double

Keyword for double-precision floating point data type.

encapsulation

Hiding the contents of a class except when absolutely necessary

float

Keyword for floating point data type.

friend

An operator or function that can access the private data members of a class of which it is designated as a friend.

friend function

A function defined outside that class’ scope but has access to private and protected members of the class

function

A section of code that performs a procedure and is usually named.

function overloading

Function overloading is the ability to create multiple functions of the same name with different implementations.

HAS-A Relationship

A relationship where one object “belongs to” another object, and behaves according to rules of ownership.

hash table

A collection consisting of key-value pairs with an associated hash function that maps the key to the associated value.

immutable

Unable to be modified.

information hiding

Hiding information so that it is invisible from the outside of an object.

inheritance

Sharing/gaining the same behavior as another class

inheritance hierarchy

A singly rooted tree structure.

instance

An occurrence of an object

int

Keyword for integer data type.

int main()

The main function used to call all other functions.

interface

A shared boundary in which two or more components of a computer system exchange information.

machine code

Instructions and data understandable by a computer’s CPU.

mutability

Able to be modified.

NOT

An inverter, used to negate input.

object

A variable, data structure, function, or a method, that can be referenced by an identifier.

object attribute

A property of an object that describes what it “looks like”

object-oriented programming language

Programming language that uses objects to represent data and methods such as C++ and Java

operator overloading

Same as function overloading.

OR

A basic gate. If either input is true, the output is also. If inputs are false, so is the output.

overloading

Specifying more than one definition for the same function name or the same operator within the same scope.

parameter

A variable in a function or method definition that accepts data passed from an argument.

pass by reference

To pass an object to a function by referencing its location in memory.

pass by value

To pass an object to a function by copying its value.

programming

The use of logic to create specified computing operations.

pointer

A variable that stores and manipulates memory addresses.

polymorphism

The ability to process objects or methods differently depending on their data type, class, number of arguments, etc.

reference

A value that indicates a place in a computer’s memory.

set

An unordered data structure consisting of unique, immutable data values.

string

A sequential data structure consisting of zero or more characters.

subclasses

A division of an existing class.

superclass

A class that has been extended by another existing class.

truth table

A mathematical table used to visually represent boolean logic and functions.

unordered set

A container that is not sorted or ordered in any secific way.

vector

Sequence container storing data of a single type that is stored in a dynamically allocated array which can change in size.

void

Keyword indicating a function has no return value.

word

Unit of data used by a particular processor design.

1.19. Matching

    Q-1: Drag the word on the left to its corresponding definition (not all the words from the glossary appear below.) Try again!
  • abstraction
  • focusing on desired behaviors and properties while disregarding what is irrelevant/unimportant
  • class methods
  • the functions that belong to a particular class
  • collection
  • a grouping of data items that have some shared significance or need to be operated upon together.
  • object-oriented programming language
  • uses objects to represent data and methods such as C++ and Java
  • constructor
  • an class' special function that initializes an object of that class
  • dereference
  • follow a pointer to its referenced memory location and read the data there.
  • object attribute
  • a property of an object that describes what it "looks like"
  • encapsulation
  • hiding the contents of a class except when absolutely necessary
  • parameter
  • a variable in a function or method definition that accepts data passed from an argument.
  • friend
  • an operator or function that can access the private data members of a class
  • friend function
  • a function defined outside that class' scope but has access to private and protected members of the class
  • mutability
  • able to be modified.
  • function
  • A section of code that performs a procedure and is usually named
  • address-of
  • &
  • argument
  • data passed to a parameter.
  • array
  • a data structure consisting of an ordered collection of data elements of identical type
  • atomic data type
  • basic data type that cannot be broken down into any simpler data elements.
  • inheritance
  • sharing/gaining the same behavior as another class
  • polymorphism
  • the ability to process objects or methods differently depending on their data type, class, number of arguments, etc.
  • class
  • a template for creating (instantiating) objects, for providing initial values for state via member variables
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