Agent-Base Models: An agent-based model (ABM) is a class of computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents (both individual or collective entities such as organizations or groups) with a view to assessing their effects on the system as a whole.
Classical Models: Classical models tend to be law-based, expressed in the form of equations, and solved by mathematical derivation.
Complexity Science: Complexity science is concerned with complex systems and problems that are dynamic, unpredictable and multi-dimensional, consisting of a collection of interconnected relationships and parts. Unlike traditional “cause and effect” or linear thinking, complexity science is characterized by non-linearity.
Determinism: Determinism is the view that all events are caused, inevitably, by prior events.
Pseudoscience: Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual but are incompatible with the scientific method.
Spontaneous Synchronization: Spontaneous synchronization is a remarkable collective effect observed in nature, whereby a population of oscillating units, which have diverse natural frequencies and are in weak interaction with one another, evolves to spontaneously exhibit collective oscillations at a common frequency.
Stochastic: Randomly determined; having a random probability distribution or pattern that may be analyzed statistically but may not be predicted precisely.