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Section 5.1 ActiveCode Examples in Python

One of the most important things that you can do when you are learning a programming language is to write programs. Unfortunately, typical textbooks allow you to read about programming, but don't allow you to practice. We have created a unique tool called activecode that allows you to write, modify, and execute programs right in the text itself (right from the web browser). Although this is certainly not the way real programs are written, it provides an excellent environment for learning a programming language like Python since you can experiment with the language as you are reading.

Take a look at the activecode interpreter in action. If we take a simple Python program and make it active, you will see that it can be executed directly by pressing the run button. Try pressing the run button below.

Now try modifying the activecode program shown above. First, modify the string in the first print statement by changing the word adds to the word multiplies. Now press run. You can see that the result of the program has changed. However, it still prints “30” as the answer. Modify the total calculation by changing the addition symbol, the “+”, to the multiplication symbol, “*”. Press run to see the new results (note that you should also fix the total initialization for a correct claculation). You can do this as many times as you like. You can even start completely over by simply deleting all the code from the window.

If you are a registered user and have logged in, any changes you make are automatically saved, and the history slider allows you to go back to any previous version of your program. Note that these saved programs can be accessed from anywhere if you have logged in. However, if you are working anonymously, then you will lose your work at the end of the session.

Click on the “Show Source” button below to see what the reStructuredText (rst) looks like for the activecode above. You can author ebook content in rst.

Hint 1.
.. activecode:: codeexample1
   :coach:

   print("My first program adds a list of numbers")
   myList = [2, 4, 6, 8, 10]
   total = 0
   for num in myList:
       total = total + num
   print(total)

Activecode is even capable of executing graphical programs that use the built in Python turtle module. The program shown below is a very interesting graphics program that uses the turtle and the idea of recursion to construct a type of fractal called a Sierpinski Triangle. Once you run the program, try experimenting with the number of triangle levels. You can find this on line 39 (it is currently set to 3). Try 4! Try some other changes and see what happens (maybe change a few of the colors or make the level 2). If you ever want to go back to the original example, simply reload the page in the browser. One of the great things about activecode is that you can experiment as much as you want. This can be very helpful as you are learning to program.

Hint 2.
.. activecode:: codeexample2
   :nocodelens:
   :hidecode:
   :autorun:

   import turtle

   def drawTriangle(points,color,myTurtle):
       myTurtle.fillcolor(color)
       myTurtle.up()
       myTurtle.goto(points[0][0],points[0][1])
       myTurtle.down()
       myTurtle.begin_fill()
       myTurtle.goto(points[1][0],points[1][1])
       myTurtle.goto(points[2][0],points[2][1])
       myTurtle.goto(points[0][0],points[0][1])
       myTurtle.end_fill()

   def getMid(p1,p2):
       return ( (p1[0]+p2[0]) / 2, (p1[1] + p2[1]) / 2)

   def sierpinski(points,degree,myTurtle):
       colormap = ['blue','red','green','white','yellow',
                 'violet','orange']
       drawTriangle(points,colormap[degree],myTurtle)
       if degree > 0:
           sierpinski([points[0],
                           getMid(points[0], points[1]),
                           getMid(points[0], points[2])],
                      degree-1, myTurtle)
           sierpinski([points[1],
                           getMid(points[0], points[1]),
                           getMid(points[1], points[2])],
                      degree-1, myTurtle)
           sierpinski([points[2],
                           getMid(points[2], points[1]),
                           getMid(points[0], points[2])],
                      degree-1, myTurtle)

   def main():
      myTurtle = turtle.Turtle()
      myWin = turtle.Screen()
      myPoints = [[-100,-50],[0,100],[100,-50]]
      sierpinski(myPoints,3,myTurtle)
      myWin.exitonclick()

   main()
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